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supermandreaming posted a photo.
2 days ago

sciencesoup:

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle

You probably know that plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, but as we saw in the last article, that isn’t a neat exchange, turning O2 into CO2. Rather, oxygen is created as a byproduct of splitting water, and CO2 is consumed by being turned into sugar. This happens in the Calvin Cycle.

In the Calvin Cycle, carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP are put in, and a sugar called G3P comes out. There are three steps to create this sugar: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration. Note that none of these steps needs direct light!

The first step is carbon fixation. CO2 is taken in from the atmosphere around the plant, added to a 5-carbon sugar called RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate), and thus turned into 3-phosphoglycerate, an organic molecule. This process is catalysed by an enzyme called Rubisco—basically, it recognises CO2 and pairs it with the “CO2 acceptor”, RuBP. For every “turn” of the Calvin Cycle, three CO2 molecules are fixed into two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules.

In the second step, reduction, the cycle takes in 6 NADPH and 6 ATP (from the light reactions) to convert these molecules into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). The “reducing power” of NADPH is used to add electrons to the molecules, and the ATP gives them phosphate groups.

Then in the last stage, regeneration, 3 more ATP molecules are used to turn five molecules of G3P back into RuBP, the CO2 acceptor, so it can be used again at the start of the cycle. What’s leftover—a single G3P—is the output of the cycle. It’s the overall goal of photosynthesis: a sugar molecule that can then be used in cellular respiration to create energy for living cells to use.

image

So, a roundup of the cycle:

  • We put in 9 ATP, 6 NADPH, and 3 CO2.
  • We get out 9 ADP, 6 NADP+, and 1 G3P (plus 3 RuBP molecules).
  • The ADP and NADP+ are then recycled back to the light reactions, and photosynthesis begins over again.

Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons

Further resources: 3D video or Video from Crashcourse

sciencesoup:

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle
You probably know that plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, but as we saw in the last article, that isn’t a neat exchange, turning O2 into CO2. Rather, oxygen is created as a byproduct of splitting water, and CO2 is consumed by being turned into sugar. This happens in the Calvin Cycle.
In the Calvin Cycle, carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP are put in, and a sugar called G3P comes out. There are three steps to create this sugar: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration. Note that none of these steps needs direct light!
The first step is carbon fixation. CO2 is taken in from the atmosphere around the plant, added to a 5-carbon sugar called RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate), and thus turned into 3-phosphoglycerate, an organic molecule. This process is catalysed by an enzyme called Rubisco—basically, it recognises CO2 and pairs it with the “CO2 acceptor”, RuBP. For every “turn” of the Calvin Cycle, three CO2 molecules are fixed into two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules.
In the second step, reduction, the cycle takes in 6 NADPH and 6 ATP (from the light reactions) to convert these molecules into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). The “reducing power” of NADPH is used to add electrons to the molecules, and the ATP gives them phosphate groups.
Then in the last stage, regeneration, 3 more ATP molecules are used to turn five molecules of G3P back into RuBP, the CO2 acceptor, so it can be used again at the start of the cycle. What’s leftover—a single G3P—is the output of the cycle. It’s the overall goal of photosynthesis: a sugar molecule that can then be used in cellular respiration to create energy for living cells to use.

So, a roundup of the cycle:
We put in 9 ATP, 6 NADPH, and 3 CO2.
We get out 9 ADP, 6 NADP+, and 1 G3P (plus 3 RuBP molecules).
The ADP and NADP+ are then recycled back to the light reactions, and photosynthesis begins over again.
Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons
Further resources: 3D video or Video from Crashcourse
supermandreaming posted 8 photos.
1 week ago

shamelessplugwhore:

thatlitsite:

[click to visit IMDB page] [click to visit Kickstarter campaign]

Paul Brokovich (Michael Malkiewicz) is an English teacher by day and a stand up comedian by night. Unfortunately Paul’s interest in becoming a recognized comic greatly outweighs his desire to educate the struggling students of his summer school class at Parkins’ Regional High. His indecisiveness to stick to one career path leads Paul to no longer view his classroom as a place of learning, but a crowd to test potential stage material. As a result, Paul’s job as a teacher falls into jeopardy and it’s up to him to pick up the pieces before facing unemployment and isolation from his family and friends. Practice Makes Perfect also stars Jayme Karales, Alex Hand, Ken Dereste Dorcely, Levar Burton, and Jack Viera as the voice of radio personality Billy Beantown.

Practice Makes Perfect is based on the upcoming ThatLitPress novella of the same name, written by Jayme Karales—the film’s screenwriter and director. Karales’ first novel Disorderly was published in 2013 by Before Sunrise Press and his second novel Clever Animals will be released later this year. 

Karales, along with Executive Producer Joel Amat Güell, formed UnHollywood Films—a two man production company for independent cinema. Practice Makes Perfect will be the first film released under the UnHollywood banner.  

Only one month ago the cast and crew met and shot a significant portion of the movie, which was funded out of pocket by the crew. However due to budget and time restrictions we didn’t complete filming in its entirety and had to miss out on shooting a number of crucial scenes. We thought it would be better to resume filming when we could put forth the proper funds to shoot the scenes, rather than rush and cheapen what was left and have the film come out half-baked. Unfortunately, without this Kickstarter, that may take a very long time. So we’re looking to the public to help fund these crucial portions of the film and the movie’s post-production. 

With your help we’ll be able to finance the following:

  • location rentals (booking a school for multiple days of filming does not come cheap—nor do bars or cafes)
  • production insurance
  • props and set decoration
  • lighting equipment rental
  • sound, and audio mastering
  • transportation to Boston, MA., Atlantic City, NJ, and Philadelphia, PA. (the filming locations)
  • post production
  • DVDs, Blu-Rays, and other rewards
  • and more

Funding Practice Makes Perfect not only means helping a movie meet its completion, but jumpstarting UnHollywood Films and its future as a leading provider of independent film. 

For a limited time only, a minimum of $5.00 can earn you unique rewards, such as: 

  • a copy of the film on DVD or HD Digital
  • a Producer / Executive Producer credit
  • tickets to the premiere
  • signed merchandise and film props
  • a speaking role in the film
  • your company/brand’s commercial filmed by the director and cast
  • an advanced copy of the upcoming novella which the film is based on
  • having your script written by the film’s screenwriter
  • a visit to the set
  • naming a character after yourself or a loved one
  • receiving writing criticism/advice from a novelist
  • and more

Pledge now and claim the rewards while they last.

Click here to view the campaign and donate.

donate to my campaign

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help me make this movie

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(via thatlitsite)

supermandreaming posted a photo.
2 weeks ago

sciencesoup:

Hershey and Chase Experiment

Biologists have known that DNA exists since 1869, but until the 1950s, they didn’t know it carried the genetic information of the cell—they thought proteins held that honour, since they seemed to be so much more complex. An early, incorrect experiment proposed that the nucleotides in DNA are arranged in a repeating sequence instead of unique codes, which supported the idea that they were simpler molecules.

But in 1953, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase showed for sure that the genetic material was not, in fact, proteins. Like many fundamental experiments in the field of biology, theirs was beautifully simple.

The key component was a virus called bacteriophage. As its name suggests, it infects bacteria, taking over their replication processes in order to make copies of itself—usually, so many replicates are made that eventually the host bacteria bursts, spreading the virus to other cells. A bacteriophage achieves this by attaching to the bacteria’s surface and injecting genetic material down into the core to start the replication process. Hershey and Chase worked with T2 bacteriophage and E. coli bacteria.

Since bacteriophages are simply composed of a protein “shell” that encloses their DNA or RNA genome, they were perfect for the experiment—all Hershey and Chase had to do was see whether protein or DNA was injected into the bacteria.

However, they had to uniquely label the two components so they could tell which was where. For this, they used their knowledge of the structure of protein and DNA: sulphur is contained in proteins but not DNA, and phosphorous is contained in DNA but not protein. So Hershey and Chase began to conduct two experiments side by side: one where they grew protein in radioactive sulphur-35 and used normal DNA, and one where they used normal protein and grew DNA in radioactive phosphorous-32.

Here’s how the rest went down:

  1. Introduce bacteria to the two different bacteriophages.
  2. The bacteriophages get to work. The shells remain on the outside of the bacteria, while its genetic material is injected into the bacteria.
  3. Hershey and Chase centrifuged the mixtures to separate the bits out by density—a centrifuge is essentially a ultra-fast, ultra-cool blender. The lighter shells are shaken away from the denser bacteria cores, which still contain the genetic material.
  4. Use a Geiger counter to check which part is radioactive, the shell or the material in the bacteria.

And as you might have guessed, here’s what they found:

  • In the experiment where protein was radioactive, the shells were found to be radioactive while the infected bacteria were not.
  • In the experiment where DNA was radioactive, the infected bacteria were found to be radioactive while the shells were not.

Therefore, Hershey and Chase concluded that DNA was injected into the bacteria and used to make copies of the phage, so DNA must be the genetic material.

Note for those interested: Hershey received a Nobel Prize for his efforts, but Chase did not, possibly because she was a lab technician (or, of course, a woman).

Further resources: McGraw Hill video and Biography of Martha Chase

sciencesoup:

Hershey and Chase Experiment
Biologists have known that DNA exists since 1869, but until the 1950s, they didn’t know it carried the genetic information of the cell—they thought proteins held that honour, since they seemed to be so much more complex. An early, incorrect experiment proposed that the nucleotides in DNA are arranged in a repeating sequence instead of unique codes, which supported the idea that they were simpler molecules.
But in 1953, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase showed for sure that the genetic material was not, in fact, proteins. Like many fundamental experiments in the field of biology, theirs was beautifully simple.
The key component was a virus called bacteriophage. As its name suggests, it infects bacteria, taking over their replication processes in order to make copies of itself—usually, so many replicates are made that eventually the host bacteria bursts, spreading the virus to other cells. A bacteriophage achieves this by attaching to the bacteria’s surface and injecting genetic material down into the core to start the replication process. Hershey and Chase worked with T2 bacteriophage and E. coli bacteria.
Since bacteriophages are simply composed of a protein “shell” that encloses their DNA or RNA genome, they were perfect for the experiment—all Hershey and Chase had to do was see whether protein or DNA was injected into the bacteria.
However, they had to uniquely label the two components so they could tell which was where. For this, they used their knowledge of the structure of protein and DNA: sulphur is contained in proteins but not DNA, and phosphorous is contained in DNA but not protein. So Hershey and Chase began to conduct two experiments side by side: one where they grew protein in radioactive sulphur-35 and used normal DNA, and one where they used normal protein and grew DNA in radioactive phosphorous-32.
Here’s how the rest went down:
Introduce bacteria to the two different bacteriophages.
The bacteriophages get to work. The shells remain on the outside of the bacteria, while its genetic material is injected into the bacteria.
Hershey and Chase centrifuged the mixtures to separate the bits out by density—a centrifuge is essentially a ultra-fast, ultra-cool blender. The lighter shells are shaken away from the denser bacteria cores, which still contain the genetic material.
Use a Geiger counter to check which part is radioactive, the shell or the material in the bacteria.
And as you might have guessed, here’s what they found:
In the experiment where protein was radioactive, the shells were found to be radioactive while the infected bacteria were not.
In the experiment where DNA was radioactive, the infected bacteria were found to be radioactive while the shells were not.
Therefore, Hershey and Chase concluded that DNA was injected into the bacteria and used to make copies of the phage, so DNA must be the genetic material.
Note for those interested: Hershey received a Nobel Prize for his efforts, but Chase did not, possibly because she was a lab technician (or, of course, a woman).
Further resources: McGraw Hill video and Biography of Martha Chase

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